APBS

Functional Behavioral Assessment

The references or source material associated with this website do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Association for Positive Behavior Support (APBS) nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by APBS.

Back APBS Library


  • Albin, R. W., O’Brien, M., & Horner, R. H. (1995). Analysis of an escalating sequence of problem behaviors: A case study. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 16, 133-147.

  • Back to Top


  • Baggett, K. M., & Carta, J. J. (2006). Using assessments to guide social-emotional intervention for very young children: An individual growth and development indicator (IGDI) of parent-child interaction. Young Exceptional Children Monograph Series, 8, 67-76.

  • Blair, K., Umbreit, J., & Bos, C. (1999). Using functional assessment and children's preferences to improve the behavior of young children with behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 24(2), 151-166.

  • Borgmeier, C., & Homer, R. H. (2006). An evaluation of the predictive validity of confidence ratings in identifying functional behavioral assessment hypothesis statements. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(2), 100-105. doi:10.1177/10983007060080020101

  • Brooks, A., Todd, A. W., Tofflemoyer, S., & Horner, R. H. (2003). Use of functional assessment and a self-management system to increase academic engagement and work completion. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(3), 144-152. doi:10.1177/10983007030050030301

  • Butler, L. R., & Luiselli, J. K. (2007). Escape-maintained problem behavior in a child with autism: Antecedent functional analysis and intervention evaluation of noncontingent escape and instructional fading. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 9(4), 195-202. doi:10.1177/10983007070090040201

  • Back to Top


  • Carr, E. G. (2000). Reconceptualizing functional assessment failures: Comments on Kennedy. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2(4), 205-207. doi:10.1177/109830070000200404

  • Carr, E. G. (1977). The motivation of self-injurious behavior: A review of some hypotheses. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 800-816.

  • Carr, E. G., Carlson, J. I., Langdon, N. A., Magito-McLaughlin, D., & Yarbrough, S. C. (1999). Two perspectives on antecedent control: Molecular and molar. In J. K. Luiselli & M. J. Cameron (Eds.), Antecedent control: Innovative approaches to behavioral support (pp. 3-28). Baltimore: Brookes.

  • Carr, E. G., & Smith, C. E. (1995). Biological setting events for self-injury. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 1, 94-98.

  • Carr, E. G., Yarbrough, S. C., & Langdon, N. A. (1997). Effects of idiosyncratic stimulus variables on functional analysis outcomes. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30, 673-685.

  • Carter, D. R., & Horner, R. H. (2009). Adding function-based behavioral support to first step to success: Integrating individualized and manualized practices. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(1), 22-34. doi:10.1177/1098300708319125

  • Carter, D. R., & Horner, R. H. (2007). Adding functional behavioral assessment to first step to success: A case study. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 9(4), 229-238. doi:10.1177/10983007070090040501

  • Cihak, D., Alberto, P. A., & Frederick, L. D. (2007). Use of brief functional analysis and intervention evaluation in public settings. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 9(2), 80-93. doi:10.1177/10983007070090020501

  • Crone, D. A., Hawken, L. S., & Bergstrom, M. K. (2007). A demonstration of training, implementing, and using functional behavioral assessment in 10 elementary and middle school settings. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 9(1), 15-29. doi:10.1177/10983007070090010301

  • Cunningham, E. & O’Neill, R. E. (2000). Comparison of results of functional assessment and analysis methods with young children with autism. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 35(4), 406-414.

  • Back to Top


  • Derby, K. M., Wacker, D. P., Sasso, G., Northup, J., Cigrand, K., & Asmus, J. (1992). Brief functional assessment techniques to evaluate aberrant behavior in an outpatient setting: A summary of 79 cases. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25, 713-721.

  • Dunlap, G., Clarke, S., & Steiner, M. (1999). Intervention research in behavioral and developmental disabilities: 1980-1997. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1(3), 170-180. doi:10.1177/109830079900100305

  • Dunlap, G., Harrower, J., & Fox, L. (2005). Understanding the environmental determinants of problem behaviors. In L. Bambara & L. Kern (Eds.), Individualized supports for students with problem behaviors. (pp. 25-46). New York: Guilford Press.

  • Dunlap, G., & Kern, L. (1993). Assessment and intervention for children within the instructional curriculum. In J. Reichle & D. Wacker (Eds.), Communicative approaches to the management of challenging behavior (pp. 177-203). Baltimore: Brookes

  • Dunlap, G., Kern-Dunlap, K., Clarke, S., & Robbins, F. R. (1991). Functional assessment, curricular revision, and severe behavior problems. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24, 387-397.

  • Durand, V. M., & Crimmins, D. B. (1988). Identifying the variables maintaining self-injurious behavior. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 18, 99-117.

  • Back to Top


  • Ellingson, S. A., Miltenberger, R. G., Stricker, J., Galensky, T. L., & Garlinghouse, M. (2000). Functional assessment and intervention for challenging behaviors in the classroom by general classroom teachers. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2, 85-97.

  • English, C. L., & Anderson, C. M. (2006). Evaluation of the treatment utility of the analog functional analysis and the structured descriptive assessment. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(4), 212-229. doi:10.1177/10983007060080040401

  • Back to Top


  • Finkel, A. S., Derby, K. M., Weber, K. P., & McLaughlin, T. F. (2003). Use of choice to identify behavioral function following an inconclusive brief functional analysis. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(2), 112-121. doi:10.1177/10983007030050020601

  • Floyd, R. G., Phaneuf, R. L., & Wilczynski, S. M. (2005). Measurement properties of indirect assessment methods for functional behavioral assessment: A review of research. School Psychology Review, 34, 58-73.

  • Foster-Johnson, L., & Dunlap, G. (1993). Using functional assessment to develop effective, individualized interventions for challenging behaviors. Teaching Exceptional Children, 25, 44-50.

  • Freeman, R. L., Baker, D., Horner, R. H., Smith, C., Britten, J., & McCart, A. (2002). Using functional assessment and systems-level assessment to build effective behavioral support plans. In K. C. Lakin & N. Wieisler (Eds.), Alternative community behavioral support and crisis response programs (pp. 199-224). [Monograph]. American Association on Mental Retardation.

  • Back to Top


  • Galensky, T. L., Miltenberger, R. G., Stricker, J. M., & Garlinghouse, M. A. (2001). Functional assessment and treatment of mealtime behavior problems. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 3(4), 211-224. doi:10.1177/109830070100300403

  • Gardner, W. I., Cole, C. L., Davidson, D. P., & Karan, O. C. (1986). Reducing aggression in individuals with developmental disabilities: An expanded stimulus control, assessment, and intervention model. Education and Training of the Mentally Retarded, 21, 3-12.

  • Back to Top


  • Harding, J., Wacker, D. P., Cooper, L. J., Asmus, J., Jensen-Kovalan, P., & Grisolano, L. (1999). Combining descriptive and experimental analyses of young children with behavior problems in preschool settings. Behavior Modification, 23, 316-333.

  • Horner, R. H., & Carr, E. G. (1997). Behavioral support for students with severe disabilities: Functional assessment and comprehensive intervention. Journal of Special Education, 31(1), 84-104.

  • Hughes, M. A., Alberto, P. A., & Fredrick, L. L. (2006). Self-operated auditory prompting systems as a function-based intervention in public community settings. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(4), 230-243. doi:10.1177/10983007060080040501

  • Back to Top


  • Ingram, K., Lewis-Palmer, T., & Sugai, G. (2005). Function-based intervention planning: Comparing the effectiveness of FBA function-based and non-function-based intervention plans. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 7(4), 224-236. doi:10.1177/10983007050070040401

  • Iwata, B. A., Dorsey, M .F., Slifer, K. J., Bauman, K. E., & Richman, G. S. (1994). Toward a functional analysis of self-injury. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 197-209.

  • Back to Top


  • Jolivette, K., Barton-Arwood, S., & Scott, T. M. (2000). Functional behavioral assessment as a collaborative process among professionals. Education and Treatment of Children. 23, 298-313.

  • Jolivette, K., Scott, T. M., & Nelson, C. M. (2000). The link between assessment and intervention: FBAs and BIPs. (ERIC EC Digest E592). Reston, VA: Council for Exceptional Children.

  • Back to Top


  • Kalsher, M. J., McCosh, K. C., & Willis, D. K. (1994). The functions of self-injurious behavior: An experimental-epidemiological analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 215-240.

  • Kamps, D., Wendland, M., & Culpepper, M. (2006). Active teacher participation in functional behavior assessment for students with emotional and behavioral disorders risks in general education classrooms. Behavioral Disorders, 31, 128-146.

  • Kennedy, C. H. (2000). When reinforcers for problem behavior are not readily apparent: Extending functional assessments to complex problem behaviors. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2(4), 195-201. doi:10.1177/109830070000200402

  • Kennedy, C. H., & Meyer, K. A. (1999). Establishing operations and the motivation of challenging behavior. In J. K. Luiselli & M. J. Cameron (Eds.), Antecedent control: Innovative approaches to behavioral support (pp. 329-346). Baltimore: Brookes.

  • Kern, L., Gallagher, P., Starosta, K., Hickman, W., & George, M. (2006). Longitudinal outcomes of functional behavioral assessment-based intervention. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(2), 67-78. doi:10.1177/10983007060080020501

  • Knoster, T. P. (2000). Understanding the difference and relationship between functional behavioral assessments and manifestation determinations. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2(1), 53-58. doi:10.1177/109830070000200108

  • Back to Top


  • LaBelle, C. A., & Charlop-Christy, M. H. (2002). Individualizing functional analysis to assess multiple and changing functions of severe behavior problems in children with autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. Special Section on Urban Issues, 4(4), 231-241. doi:10.1177/10983007020040040601

  • Lane, K. L., Umbreit, J., & Beebe-Frankenberger, M. (1999). A review of functional assessment research with students with or at-risk for emotional and behavioral disorders. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 1, 101-111.

  • Lewis, T. J., Scott, T. M., & Sugai, G. (1994). The problem behavior questionnaire: A teacher-based instrument to develop functional hypotheses of problem behavior in general education classrooms. Diagnostique, 19 (2-3), 103-115.

  • Lewis, T. J., & Sugai, G. (1996). Functional assessment of problem behavior: A pilot investigation on the comparative and interactive effects of teacher and peer social attention on students in general education settings. School Psychology Quarterly, 11, 1-19.

  • Lohrmann-O'Rourke, S., Knoster, T., & Llewellyn, G. (1999). Screening for understanding: An initial line of inquiry for school-based settings. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1(1), 35-42. doi:10.1177/109830079900100105

  • Back to Top


  • March, R. E. & Horner, R. H. (2002). Feasibility and contributions of functional behavioral assessment in schools. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 10, 158-170.

  • McIntosh, K., & Av-Gay, H. (2007). Implications of current research on the use of functional behavior assessment and behavior support planning in school systems. International Journal of Behavior Consultation and Therapy, 3, 38-52.

  • McIntosh, K., Borgmeier, C., Anderson, C. M., Horner, R. H., Rodriguez, B. J., & Tobin, T. J. (2008). Technical adequacy of the functional assessment checklist: Teachers and staff (FACTS) FBA interview measure. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(1), 33-45. doi:10.1177/1098300707311619

  • McIntosh, K., Campbell, A. L., Carter, D. R., & Dickey, C. R. (2009). Differential effects of a tier two behavior intervention based on function of problem behavior. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(2), 82-93. doi:10.1177/1098300708319127

  • McLaren, E. M., & Nelson, C. M. (2009). Using functional behavior assessment to develop behavior interventions for students in head start. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(1), 3-21. doi:10.1177/1098300708318960

  • Miltenberger, R. G. (2000). Strategies for clarifying ambiguous functional analysis outcomes: Comments on Kennedy. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2(4), 202-204. doi:10.1177/109830070000200403

  • Moes, D. R., & Frea, W. D. (2000). Using family context to inform intervention planning for the treatment of a child with autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2(1), 40-46. doi:10.1177/109830070000200106

  • Back to Top


  • Newcomer, L. L., & Lewis, T. J. (2004). Functional behavioral assessment: An investigation of assessment reliability and effectiveness of function-based interventions. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 12, 168-181.

  • Back to Top


  • O’Neill, R. E., Horner, R. H., Albin, R. W., Sprague, J. R., Storey, K., & Newton, J. S. (1997). Functional assessment and program development for problem behavior: A practical handbook (2nd ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

  • O'Reilly, M. F. (1995). Functional analysis and treatment of escape-maintained aggression correlated with sleep deprivation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28, 225-226.

  • O'Reilly, M. F. (1997). Functional analysis of episodic self-injury correlated with recurrent otitis media. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30(1), 165-167.

  • Back to Top


  • Radford, P. M., & Ervin, R. A. (2002). Employing descriptive functional assessment methods to assess low-rate, high-intensity behaviors: A case example. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 4(3), 146-155. doi:10.1177/10983007020040030301

  • Repp, A. C. (1999). Naturalistic functional assessment with regular and special education students in classroom settings. In A. C. Repp & R. H. Horner (Eds.), Functional analysis of problem behavior: From effective assessment to effective practice (pp. 238-258). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

  • Repp, A. C., & Horner, R. H. (Eds.). (1999). Functional analysis of problem behavior: From effective assessment to effective support. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth

  • Back to Top


  • Scott, T. M., Bucalos, A., Liaupsin, C., Nelson, C. M., Jolivette, K., & DeShea, L. (2004). Using functional behavior assessment in general education settings: Making a case for effectiveness and efficiency. Behavioral Disorders, 29, 189-201.

  • Scott, T., & Caron, D. B. (2005). Conceptualizing functional behavior assessment as revention practice within positive behavior support systems. Preventing School Failure, 50, 13-20. doi: 10.3200/PSFL.50.1.13-20

  • Scott, T. M., Mclntyre, J., Liaupsin, C., Nelson, C. M., Conroy, M., & Payne, L. D. (2005). An examination of the relation between functional behavior assessment and selected intervention strategies with school-based teams. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 7(4), 205-215. doi:10.1177/10983007050070040201

  • Scott, T. M., McIntyre, J., Liaupsin, C., Nelson, C. M., & Conroy, M. (2004). An examination of functional behavioral assessment in public school settings: Collaborative teams, experts, and methodology. Behavioral Disorders, 29, 384-395.

  • Scott, T. M., Meers, D. T., & Nelson, C. M. (2000). Toward a consensus of functional behavioral assessment for students with mild disabilities in public schools: A national survey. Education and Treatment of Children, 23, 265-285.

  • Scott, T. M., Nelson, C. M., & Zabala, J. (2003). Functional behavior assessment training in public schools: Facilitating systemic change. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(4), 216-224. doi:10.1177/10983007030050040501

  • Smith-Bird, E., & Turnbull, A. P. (2005). Linking positive behavior support to family quality of life outcomes. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 7, 174-180.

  • Snell, M. E., Voorhees, M. D., & Chen, L. (2005). Team involvement in assessment-based interventions with problem behavior: 1997-2002. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 7(3), 140-152. doi:10.1177/10983007050070030301

  • Sprague, J. R., & Horner, R. H. (1995). Functional assessment and intervention in community settings. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 1, 89-93.

  • Sprague, J. R., & Horner, R. H. (1999). Low-frequency high-intensity problem behavior: Toward an applied technology of functional assessment and intervention. In A. C. Repp & R. H. Horner (Eds.), Functional analysis of problem behavior: From effective assessment to effective support (pp. 98-116). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.

  • Stage, S. A., Cheney, D., Walker, B., & LaRocque, M. (2002). A preliminary discriminant and convergent validity study of the teacher functional behavioral assessment checklist. School Psychology Review, 31, 71-93.

  • Stage, S. A., Jackson, H. G., Moscovitz, K., Erickson, M. J., Thurman, S. O., Jessee, W., et al. (2006). Using multimethod-multisource functional behavioral assessment with students with behavioral disabilities. School Psychology Review, 35, 451-471.

  • Stahr, B., Cushing, D., Lane, K., & Fox, J. (2006). Efficacy of a function-based intervention in decreasing off-task behavior exhibited by a student with ADHD. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(4), 201-211. doi:10.1177/10983007060080040301

  • Stichter, J. P., Clarke, S., & Dunlap, G. (2004). Two decades of assessment and antecedent-based intervention across behavioral and developmental disabilities. Education and Treatment of Children, 27, 86-104.

  • Back to Top


  • Taylor, J. C., & Carr, E. G. (1992a). Severe problem behaviors related to social interaction. I: Attention seeking and social avoidance. Behavior Modification, 16, 305-335.

  • Taylor, J. C., & Carr, E. G. (1992b). Severe problem behaviors related to social interaction. II: A systems analysis. Behavior Modification, 16, 336-371.

  • Touchette, P. E., MacDonald, R. F., & Langer, S. N. (1985). A scatter plot for identifying stimulus control of problem behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18, 343-351.

  • Back to Top


  • Wacker, D. P., Steege, M. W., Northup, J., Sasso, G., Berg, W., Reimers, T., Cooper, L., Cigrand, K., & Donn, L. (1990). A component analysis of functional communication training across three topographies of severe behavior problems. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 417-429.

  • Wahler, R. G., & Graves, M. G. (1983). Setting events in social networks: Ally or enemy in child behavior therapy? Behavior Therapy, 14, 19-36.

  • Watson, T. S., & Steege, M. W. (2003). Conducting school-based functional behavioral assessments: A practitioner's guide. New York: Guilford Press.

  • Wehmeyer, M. L., Baker, D., Blumberg, R., & Harrison, R. (2004). Self-determination and student involvement in functional assessment: Innovative practices. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 6, 29-35.

  • Weiss, N. R., & Knoster, T. (2008). It may be nonaversive, but is it a positive approach? Relevant questions to ask throughout the process of behavioral assessment and intervention. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(1), 72-78. doi:10.1177/1098300707311389

Back to Top

APBS New Logo Site Help | Site Map | Privacy Policy | Contact Us | ©2007-2014 Association for Positive Behavior Support