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Developmental Disabilities (Focus on Adults)

The links below are intended to help you navigate among the pages related to Developmental Disabilities (Focus on Adults). The references or source material associated with this website do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Association for Positive Behavior Support (APBS) nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by APBS.


  • Albin, R. W., Lucyshyn, J. M., Horner, R. H., & Flannery, K. B. (1996). Contextual fit for behavior support plans. In L. K. Koegel, R. L. Koegel, & G. Dunlap (Eds.), Positive behavioral support: Including people with difficult behavior in the community (pp. 81-98). Baltimore: Brookes.

  • Albin, R. W., O’Brien, M., & Horner, R. H. (1995). Analysis of an escalating sequence of problem behaviors: A case study. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 16, 133-147.

  • Anderson, J. L., Russo, R., Dunlap, G., & Albin, R. W. (1996). A team training model for building the capacity to provide positive behavioral supports in inclusive settings. In L. K. Koegel, R. L. Koegel, & G. Dunlap (Eds.), Positive behavioral support: Including people with difficult behavior in the community (pp. 467-490). Baltimore, MD: Brookes.

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  • Baker, D. J., Blumberg, R., & Freeman, R. (2002). Considerations for functional assessment of problem behavior among persons with developmental disabilities and mental illness. In J. Jacobson, J. Mulick, & S. Holburn (Eds.), Programs and services for people with dual developmental and psychiatric disabilities (pp. 51-66). Kingston, NY: NADD.

  • Baker, D. J., Blumberg, E. R., Freeman, R, Wieseler, N. (2002). Can psychiatric disorders be seen as establishing operations? Integrating applied behavior analysis and psychiatry. Mental Health Aspects of Developmental Disabilities, 5, 118-124.

  • Bannerman, D. J., Sheldon, J. B., Sherman, J. A., & Harchik, A. E. (1990). Balancing the right to habilitation with the right to personal liberties: The rights of people with developmental disabilities to eat too many doughnuts and take a nap. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 79-89.

  • Bambara, L. M., Ager, C., & Koger, F. (1995). The effects of choice and preference on the work performance of adults with severe disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 555-556.

  • Bambara, L. M., Cole, C. L., & Koger, F. (1998). Translating self-determination concepts into support for adults with severe disabilities. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 23, 27-37.

  • Bambara, L. M., Dunlap, G., & Schwartz, I. S. (2004). Positive behavior support: Critical articles on improving practice for individuals with severe disabilities. TASH, ProEd.

  • Bambara, L., & Knoster, T. (1998). Designing positive behavior support plans. Innovations (no. 13). Washington, DC: American Association on Mental Retardation.

  • Bambara, L. M., & Knoster, T. P. (2009). Designing positive behavior support plans (2nd Ed.). American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.

  • Bambara, L. M., Koger, F., Katzer, T., & Davenport, T. A. (1995). Embedding choice in the context of daily routines: An experimental case study. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 20(3), 185-195.

  • Benitez, D., Lattimore, J., & Wehmeyer, M. L. (2005). Promoting the involvement of students with emotional and behavioral disorders in career and vocational planning and decision-making: The Self-Determined Career Development Model. Behavioral Disorders, 30, 431-447.

  • Brown, F. (1991). Creative daily scheduling: A nonintrusive approach to challenging behaviors in community residences. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 16(2), 75-84.

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  • Carr, E. G., Ladd, M. V., & Schulte, C. F. (2008). Validation of the contextual assessment inventory for problem behavior. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(2), 91-104. doi:10.1177/1098300707312543

  • Carr, E. G., Levin, L., McConnachie, G., Carlson, J. I., Kemp, D. C., Smith, C. E., & Magito-McLaughlin, D. (1999). Comprehensive multisituational intervention for problem behavior in the community: Long term maintenance and social validation. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1(1), 5-25.

  • Carr, E. G., & Smith, C. E. (1995). Biological setting events for self-injury. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 1, 94-98.

  • Carter, E. W., Austin, D., & Trainor, A. A. (2011). Factors associated with the early work experiences of adolescents with severe disabilities. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 49(4), 248-260. DOI: 10.1352/1934-9556-49.4.248

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  • Dennis, R. E., Williams, W., Giangreco, M. F., & Cloninger, C. J. (1993). Quality of life as a context for planning and evaluation of services for people with disabilities. Exceptional Children, 59, 499-512.

  • DePaepe, P., Reichle, J., & O’Neill, R. (1993). Applying general case instructional strategies when teaching communicative alternatives to challenging behavior. In J. Reichle & D. Wacker (Eds.), Communicative alternatives to challenging behavior: Integrating functional assessment and intervention strategies (pp. 237-262). Baltimore: Brookes.

  • De Wein, M., & Miller, L. K. (2009). The teaching-family model: A program description and its effects on the aggressive behaviors and quality of life of two adults with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(4), 235-251. doi:10.1177/1098300709332344

  • Dishion, T. J., & Kavanagh, K. (2005). Intervening in adolescent problem behavior: A family-centered approach. New York: Guilford Press.

  • Durand, V. M. (1990). Severe behavior problems: A functional communication training approach. New York: Guilford Press.

  • Durand, V. M. (1999). Functional communication training using assistive devices: Recruiting natural communities of reinforcement. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 32, 247-267.

  • Durand, V. M. (2011). Optimistic parenting: Hope and help for you and your challenging child. Brookes.

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  • Eisenman, L. T. (2007). Social Networks and Careers of Young Adults With Intellectual Disabilities. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 45(3), 199-208.

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  • Flannery, B. K., Newton, S., Horner, R., Slovic, R., Blumberg, R., & Ard, W. (2000). The impact of person centered planning on the content and organization of individual supports. Career Development of Exceptional Individuals, 23, 124-137.

  • Fox, P., & Emerson, E. (2001). Social valid outcomes of intervention for people with MR and challenging behavior: Views of different stakeholders. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 3(3), 183-189. doi:10.1177/109830070100300306

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  • Gage, M. A., Fredericks, H. D., Johnson-Dom, N., & Lindley-Southard, B. (2010). In-service training for staffs of group homes and work activity centers serving developmentally disabled adults. Research & Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 34(2), 49-58.

  • Gardner, W. I., Cole, C. L., Berry, D. L., & Nowinski, J. M. (1983). Reduction of disruptive behaviors in mentally retarded adults: A self-management approach. Behavior Modification, 7, 76-96.

  • Gardner, W. I., Cole, C. L., Davidson, D. P., & Karan, O. C. (1986). Reducing aggression in individuals with developmental disabilities: An expanded stimulus control, assessment, and intervention model. Education and Training of the Mentally Retarded, 21, 3-12.

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  • Hamill, L. B. (2003). Going to College: The Experiences of a Young Woman With Down Syndrome. Mental Retardation, 41(5), 340-353.

  • Harvey, M. T., Baker, D. J., Horner, R. H., & Blackford, J. U. (2003). A brief report on the prevalence of sleep problems in individuals with mental retardation living in the community. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(4), 195-200. doi:10.1177/10983007030050040201

  • Hieneman, M., & Dunlap, G. (2000). Factors affecting the outcomes of community-based support: I. Identification and description of factor categories. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2(3), 161-169.

  • Hieneman, M., & Dunlap, G. (2001). Factors affecting the outcomes of community-based behavioral support: II. factor category importance. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 3(2), 67-74. doi:10.1177/109830070100300202

  • Horner, R. H., Close, D. W., Fredericks, H. D. B., O’Neill, R. E., Albin, R. W., Sprague, J. R., Kennedy, C. H., Flannery, K. B., & Heathfield, L. T. (1996). Supported living for people with profound disabilities and severe problem behaviors. In D. H. Lehr & F. Brown (Eds.), People with disabilities who challenge the system (pp. 209-240). Baltimore: Brookes.

  • Horner, R. H., & Day, H. M. (1991). The effects of response efficiency on functionally equivalent competing behaviors. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24(4), 719-732.

  • Horner, R. H., Day, H., & Day, J. R. (1997). Using neutralizing routines to reduce problem behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30, 601-613.

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  • Jokinen, N. S., & Brown, R. I. (2010). Family quality of life and older-aged families of adults with an intellectual disability. In R. Kober, (Ed.), Enhancing the quality of life of people with intellectual disabilities (pp. 279-303). New York: Springer.

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  • Kemp, D. C., & Carr, E. G. (1995). Reduction of severe problem behavior in community employment using an hypothesis-driven multicomponent intervention approach. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 20, 229-247.

  • Kennedy, C. H., Horner, R. H., & Newton, J. S. (1990). The social networks and activity patterns of adults with severe disabilities: A correlational analysis. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 18, 240-242.

  • Kennedy, C. H., Horner, R. H., Newton, J. S., & Kanda, E. (1990). Measuring the activity patterns of adults with severe disabilities using the resident lifestyle inventory. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 15, 79-85.

  • Kennedy, C. H., & Thompson, T. (2000). Health conditions contributing to problem behavior among people with mental retardation and developmental disabilities. In M. L. Wehmeyer, & J. R. Patton, (Eds.), Mental retardation in the 21st century (pp. 211-231). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

  • Kim, K. H., & Turnbull, A. (2004). Transition to adulthood for students with severe disabilities: Shifting toward person-family interdependent planning. Research & Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 29, 53-57.

  • Kim, S., Larson, S. A., & Lakin, K. C. (2001). Behavioural outcomes of deinstitutionalization for people with intellectual disability: A review of studies conducted between 1980 and 1999. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 26, 35-50.

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  • Lakin. K. C., & Wieisler, N. (2002). Alternative community behavioral support and crisis response programs. [Monograph]. American Association on Mental Retardation.

  • Lucyshyn, J. M., Olson, D., & Horner, R. H. (1995). Building an ecology of support: A case study of one young woman with severe problem behaviors living in the community. JASH, 20(1), 16-30.

  • Luiselli, J. K. (2006). Antecedent assessment & intervention: Supporting children & adults with developmental disabilities in community settings. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.

  • Lumley, V. A., & Scotti, J. R. (2001). Supporting the sexuality of adults with mental retardation: Current status and future directions. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 3(2), 109-119. doi:10.1177/109830070100300208

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  • Magito McLaughlin, D. & Spinosa, T. R. (2002). Individualized waiver services: Working methods. In J. W. Jacobsen, J. A. Mulick, & S. Holburn, (Eds.), Contemporary dual diagnosis MH/MR service models. Volume 1: Residential and day services (pp. 75-87). New York: NADD Press.

  • Modell, S. J., & Cropp, D. (2007). Police Officers and Disability: Perceptions and Attitudes. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 45(1), 60-63.

  • Modell, S. J., & Mak, S. (2008). A preliminary assessment of police officers' knowledge and perceptions of persons with disabilities. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 46(3), 183-189.

  • Morningstar, M., Turnbull, A. P., & Turnbull, H. R. (1996). What do students with disabilities tell us about the importance of family involvement in the transition from school to adult life. Exceptional Children, 62(3), 249-260.

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  • Nonnemacher, S. L., & Bambara, L. M. (2011). “I'm Supposed to Be In Charge”: Self-Advocates’ Perspectives on Their Self-Determination Support Needs. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities 49(5), 327-340.

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  • O’Neill, R., & Reichle, J. (1993). Addressing socially motivated challenging behaviors by establishing communicative alternatives. In J. Reichle & D. Wacker (Eds.), Communicative alternatives to challenging behavior: Integrating functional assessment and intervention strategies (pp. 205-236). Baltimore: Brookes.

  • Openden, D. (2004). Review of no pity: People with disabilities forging a new civil rights movement. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 6(1), 51-54. doi:10.1177/10983007040060010701

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  • Parsons, M. B., Reid, D. H., & Crow, R. E. (2003). Best and worst ways to motivate staff in community agencies: A brief survey of supervisors. Mental Retardation, 41(2), 96-102.

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  • Reichle, J., Drager, K., & Davis, C. (2002). Using requests for assistance to obtain desired items and to gain release from non-preferred activities: Implications for assessment and intervention. Education and Treatment of Children, 25, 47-66.

  • Reichle, J., McComas, J., Dahl, N., Solberg, G., Pierce, S., & Smith, D. (2005). Teaching an individual with severe intellectual delay to request assistance conditionally. Educational Psychology, 2(3), 275-286.

  • Reichle, J., Rogers, N., & Barrett, C. (1984). Establishing pragmatic discriminations among the communicative functions of requesting, rejecting, and commenting in an adolescent. Journal of the Association for Severely Handicapped, 9, 31-36.

  • Reid, D., Rotholz, D. A., Parsons, M. B., Morris, L., Braswell, B. A., Green, C. W., & Schell, R. M. (2003). Training human service supervisors in aspects of PBS: Evaluation of a statewide performance-based program. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5, 35-46. doi:10.1177/10983007030050010601

  • Rogan, P., & Rinne, S. (2011). National call for organizational change from sheltered workshops to integrated employment. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 49(4), 248-260. DOI: 10.1352/1934-9556-49.4.248

  • Romanczyk, R. G., & Mathews, A. L. (1998). Physiological state as antecedent: Utilization in functional analyses. In J. K. Luiselli & M. J. Cameron (Eds.), Antecedent control: Innovative approaches to behavioral support (pp. 115-138). Baltimore: Brookes.

  • Ruef, M. B. & Turnbull, A. P. (2002). The perspectives of individuals with cognitive disabilities and/or autism on their lives and their problem behavior. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 27(2), 125-140.

  • Ruef, M. B., Turnbull, A. P., Turnbull, H. R., & Poston, D. (1999). Perspectives of five stakeholder groups: Challenging behavior of individuals with mental retardation and/or Autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1(1), 43-58. doi:10.1177/109830079900100106

  • Rusch, F. R., & Dattilo, J. (2012). Employment and self-management: A meta-evaluation of seven literature reviews. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 50(1), 69-75. DOI: 10.1352/1934-9556-50.1.69

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  • Salmento, M., & Bambara, L. M. (2000). Teaching staff members to provide choice opportunities for adults with multiple disabilities. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2(1), 12-21. doi:10.1177/109830070000200103

  • Sands, D., & Kozleski, E. (1994). Quality of life differences between adults with and without disabilities. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 29, 90-101.

  • Schalock, R. L., & Verdugo, M. A. (2012). A leadership guide for today's disabilities organizations: Overcoming challenges and making change happen. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.

  • Shogren, K., Faggella-Luby, M., Bae, S. J., & Wehmeyer, M. L. (2004). The effect of choice-making as an intervention for problem behavior: A meta-analysis. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 6, 228-237.

  • Shogren, K. A., & Plotner, A. (2012). Transition planning for students with intellectual disability, autism, or other disabilities: Data from the national longitudinal transition study-2. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 50(1), 16-30. DOI: 10.1352/1934-9556-50.1.16

  • Singer, G. H. S., Gert, B., & Koegel, R. L. (1999). A moral framework for analyzing the controversy over aversive behavioral interventions for people with severe mental retardation. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1(2), 88-100. doi:10.1177/109830079900100203

  • Singh, N. N., Lancioni, G. E., O'Reilly, M. F., Molina, E. J., Adkins, A. D., & Oliva, D. (2003). Self-determination during mealtimes through microswitch choice-making by an individual with complex multiple disabilities and profound mental retardation. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(4), 209-215. doi:10.1177/10983007030050040401

  • Slaytor, E. M. (2010). Demographic and clinical characteristics of people with intellectual disabilities with and without substance abuse disorders in a Medicaid population. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 48(6), 417-431. DOI: 10.1352/1934-9556-48.6.417

  • Sowers, J., & Powers, L. (1995). Enhancing the participation and independence of students with severe physical and multiple disabilities in performing community activities. Mental Retardation, 33, 209-220.

  • Smull, M., & Lakin, K. C. (2002). Public policy and person-centered planning. In S. Holburn & P. Vietze (Eds.), Person-centered planning: Research, practice and future directions. Baltimore: Brookes.

  • Sturmey, P. (2003). Video technology and persons with Autism and other developmental disabilities: An emerging technology for PBS. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(1), 3-4. doi:10.1177/10983007030050010401

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  • Timmons, J. C., Hall A. C., Bose, J., Wolfe, A., & Winsor, J. (2011). Choosing employment: Factors that impact employment decisions for individuals with intellectual disability. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 49(4), 285-299. DOI: 10.1352/1934-9556-49.4.285

  • Turnbull, A., & Turnbull, R. (2000). Achieving "rich" lifestyles. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2(3), 190-192. doi:10.1177/109830070000200310

  • Turnbull, A. P., & Turnbull, H. R. (1999). Comprehensive lifestyle support for adults with challenging behavior: From rhetoric to reality. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 34, 373-394.

  • Turnbull, R. (2011). The exceptional life of Jay Turnbull: Disability and dignity in America 1967-2009. Amherst, MA: White Poppy Press.

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  • Wehmeyer, M. L. (2001). Self-determination and transition. In P. Wehman, (Ed.), Life beyond the classroom: Transition strategies for young people with disabilities (3rd ed.) (pp. 35-60). Baltimore: Brookes.

  • Wehmeyer, M. L. (2003). Self-determination, vocational rehabilitation, and workplace supports. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 19, 67-70.

  • Wehmeyer, M. L., & Bolding, N. (2001). Enhanced self-determination of adults with mental retardation as an outcome of moving to community-based work or living environments. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 45, 371-383.

  • Wehmeyer, M. L., Chapman, T. E., Little, T. D., Thompson, J. R., Schalock, R. L., & Tasse, M. J. (2009). Efficacy of the Supports Intensity Scale to predict extraordinary support needs. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 114, 3-14

  • Wehmeyer, M. L., & Palmer, S. B. (2003). Adult outcomes for students with cognitive disabilities three years after high school: The impact of self-determination. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 38, 131-144.

  • Wehmeyer, M. L. & Schwartz, M. (1998). The relationship between self-determination, quality of life, and life satisfaction for adults with mental retardation. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 33, 3-12.

  • Wehmeyer, M. L., & Schwartz, M. (1998). The self-determination focus of transition goals for students with mental retardation. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 21, 75-86.

  • Winsor, J. E., Butterworth, J., & Boone, J. (2011). Jobs by 21 partnership project: Impact of cross-system collaboration on employment outcomes of young adults with developmental disabilities. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 49(4), 274-284. DOI: 10.1352/1934-9556-49.4.274

  • Wolfensberger, W. (1972). The principle of normalization in human services. Toronto: National Institute of Mental Retardation.

  • Wolfensberger, W. (1983). Social role valorization: A proposed new term for the principle of normalization. Mental Retardation, 21, 234-239.

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